England and Wales

The Badgers Act 1991 and Protection of Badgers Act 1992

This Act provides comprehensive protection for badgers and their setts in England and Wales. Under this Act, It is illegal to kill or harm badgers or disturb their setts unless a license has been granted.

Countryside Rights of Access Act 2000 (CRoW 2000)

This Act, applicable to England and Wales, has four primary areas of focus; Access to Open Country, Public Rights of Way (PROW), Nature Conservation and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). It also increases management and protection requirements for Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and strengthens wildlife enforcement legislation.

Many provisions have been incorporated, as amendments, into the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981) and some provisions have been superseded by The Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act (2006).

Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006

The NERC Act included the establishment of Natural England and put in place other measures such as changes to the remit and constitution of the Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC). Various amendments are made to the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and the Countryside and Rights of Way (CROW) Act 2000. Other provisions include those relating to pesticides harmful to wildlife and invasive non-native species.

Hedgerow Regulations 1997

In England and Wales, The Hedgerows Regulations 1997, prohibit the removal of important hedgerows without having been granted with a hedgerow removal notice. They apply to hedgerows growing in, or adjacent to, any common land, protected land, or land used for agriculture, forestry or the breeding or keeping of horses, ponies or donkeys if the hedgerow has a continuous length of, or exceeding, 20 metres; or it has a continuous length of less than 20 metres and, at each end, meets (whether by intersection or junction) another hedgerow. The Regulations also set out criteria to determine ‘important hedgerows’ that require special consideration by local planning authorities.

The Environmental Damage (Prevention and Remediation) Regulations 2009

The Regulations transpose the EU Environmental Liability Directive in England and Wales to prevent and repair damage to water systems, land quality, species and their habitats and protected sites. Regulations apply to a range of activities that cause a risk of 'significant' damage or cause 'significant' damage to land, water or biodiversity. 

The Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2010

The Regulations consolidate previous amendments made to the Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) in England and Wales Regulations 1994 that transposed the EC Habitats Directive into national law.  The Regulations provide for the designation and protection of 'European Sites' and the protection of 'European Protected Species'. Public bodies are required to have due regard to the EC habitats Directive under the regulations. 

Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010 and Water Resources Act 1991

Under these Regulations it is an offence, without a relevant Permit, to cause or knowingly permit any poisonous, noxious or polluting matter or any solid waste matter to enter any controlled waters, to cause or knowingly permit any trade effluent or sewage effluent to be discharged from a building or from any fixed plant on to or into any land; or into any waters of a lake or pond which are not inland freshwaters.

When undertaking activities such as construction, waste storage, landscaping and vehicle washing these Regulations need to be considered to ensure that land and water pollution is prevented. 

The Town and Country (Tree Preservation) (England) Regulations 2012 and The Town and Country Planning (Trees) Regulations 1999

Under these Regulations, trees can be protected through a Tree Preservation Order (TPO). The TPO aims to protect single trees, including veteran trees, or groups of trees from deliberate damage or removal. The 1999 Regulations were revoked in England (apart from certain provisions) but remain in force in Wales.

If you have trees with TPO’s on your campus it is an offence to damage, top, lop, fell, uproot or destroy them. Permission is required from your local authority before carrying out tree maintenance on them.